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All posts; Tags Include "Comparative Psychology"

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  • May 26, 2017
  • 12:34 PM
  • 1,661 views

The Ugliness Penalty: Does It Literally Pay to Be Pretty?

by Melissa Chernick in Science Storiented

There are economic studies that show that attractive people earn more money and, conversely, unattractive earn less money. I’m pretty sure that I’ve heard something along those lines before, but I had no idea they were called the “beauty premium” and the “ugliness penalty.” How wonderful and sad at the same time. But while these seem like pretty commonplace ideas, there is no real evidence as to why they exist. A new paper published in the Journal of Business and Psychology tested th........ Read more »

Kanazawa, S., & Still, M. (2017) Is There Really a Beauty Premium or an Ugliness Penalty on Earnings?. Journal of Business and Psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s10869-017-9489-6  

  • March 8, 2017
  • 11:30 AM
  • 537 views

Dearly Departed Dogs

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Do online pet obituaries reveal how we truly feel about our pets?Guest post by Jane Gething-Lewis (Hartpury College).“You were such a selfless and giving boy. Dad loves you with all his heart.”A heartfelt online tribute to a dearly departed loved one – but this loved one had four legs, a tail and was called Cosmo. Over the top? Not necessarily. Research suggests that many people feel the loss of a beloved pet as keenly as the loss of a child.The bond people have with each other has long be........ Read more »

  • February 22, 2017
  • 01:00 PM
  • 515 views

The Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

New research casts doubt on an old explanation for the play bow – and suggests it’s all about more play.The play bow is a glorious signal in dogs. The bum goes up and the elbows go down, leaving the rear end sticking up, usually accompanied by a lovely happy face (as pictured above). Not just reserved for other dogs, our canine friends will play bow to us too.Traditionally, it was believed that the play bow serves as a signal to say something like, “I’m just playing, it’s not real!”,........ Read more »

Bekoff, M. (1995) Play Signals as Punctuation: the Structure of Social Play in Canids. Behaviour, 132(5), 419-429. DOI: 10.1163/156853995X00649  

Byosiere SE, Espinosa J, & Smuts B. (2016) Investigating the function of play bows in adult pet dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). Behavioural processes, 106-13. PMID: 26923096  

Byosiere SE, Espinosa J, Marshall-Pescini S, Smuts B, & Range F. (2016) Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis). PloS one, 11(12). PMID: 28033358  

Horowitz A. (2009) Attention to attention in domestic dog (Canis familiaris) dyadic play. Animal cognition, 12(1), 107-18. PMID: 18679727  

  • February 15, 2017
  • 01:00 PM
  • 562 views

"Dominance" Training Deprives Dogs of Positive Experiences

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Dominance is an outdated approach to dog training – and it also means dogs miss out on fun.Approaches to dog training based on dominance rely on the idea that you have to be the ‘alpha’ or pack leader. Unfortunately, this type of dog training is not just out-of-date and potentially risky, but modern approaches to dog training are also a lot more fun – for you and the dog.What is dominance in dog training?We sometimes hear the phrase ‘my dog is being dominant.’ ‘Your dog is being do........ Read more »

Arhant, C., Bubna-Littitz, H., Bartels, A., Futschik, A., & Troxler, J. (2010) Behaviour of smaller and larger dogs: Effects of training methods, inconsistency of owner behaviour and level of engagement in activities with the dog. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 123(3-4), 131-142. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2010.01.003  

Casey, R., Loftus, B., Bolster, C., Richards, G., & Blackwell, E. (2014) Human directed aggression in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): Occurrence in different contexts and risk factors. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2013.12.003  

Deldalle, S., & Gaunet, F. (2014) Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog–owner relationship. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 9(2), 58-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.11.004  

McGowan, R., Rehn, T., Norling, Y., & Keeling, L. (2013) Positive affect and learning: exploring the “Eureka Effect” in dogs. Animal Cognition, 17(3), 577-587. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0688-x  

Rooney, N., & Bradshaw, J. (2002) An experimental study of the effects of play upon the dog–human relationship. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 75(2), 161-176. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1591(01)00192-7  

  • February 8, 2017
  • 11:30 AM
  • 524 views

Timing and Attention Matter in Dog Training, New Study Shows

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Analysis of videos of dog training sessions show that getting the dog’s attention and good timing of rewards are linked to better results.A new study looks at the interactions between people and dogs whilst teaching ‘lie down’. The results show the importance of the timing of rewards and of getting the dog’s attention in order to be successful in dog training.The study is part of a wider research project at the University of Sydney into what they call “dogmanship.” I asked first auth........ Read more »

Payne, E., Bennett, P., & McGreevy, P. (2017) DogTube: An examination of dogmanship online. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 50-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.10.006  

  • January 25, 2017
  • 11:30 AM
  • 553 views

The Importance of Science in Horse Training

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Horse ‘licking and chewing’: is it a sign of learning, submission or stress?Guest post by Georgina (Gina) Bishopp (Hartpury College, UK). A little while ago I was having a lesson on my horse when my instructor beamed up at me and exclaimed, “There you go, she is licking and chewing – she’s really listening to you now, keep going!” and with excitement I continued on eagerly with the exercise we were practising. It wasn’t until the exhilaration of the moment had waned did I thin........ Read more »

Goodwin, D. (2010) The importance of ethology in understanding the behaviour of the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 31(S28), 15-19. DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05150.x  

Warren-Smith AK, & McGreevy PD. (2008) Preliminary investigations into the ethological relevance of round-pen (round-yard) training of horses. Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS, 11(3), 285-98. PMID: 18569224  

  • January 18, 2017
  • 11:30 AM
  • 574 views

Finding Out if Dogs Like Cats - Or Not

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

A new study investigates the best way to find out if a dog will get on with cats.When dogs are waiting for adoption at a shelter, a common question is “what is the dog like with cats?” But at the moment there’s no validated way to test dogs to see if they will be friendly to cats.Some dogs become good friends with cats, but other dogs want to chase and kill them, so it would really help if shelters knew if a dog is cat-friendly.Sometimes the person who surrenders a dog will provide informa........ Read more »

Hoffman, C., Workman, M., Roberts, N., & Handley, S. (2017) Dogs’ responses to visual, auditory, and olfactory cat-related cues. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2016.12.016  

  • January 11, 2017
  • 01:00 PM
  • 509 views

The Five Domains Model Aims to Help Animals Thrive

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

An updated approach to animal welfare includes opportunities for positive experiences for our companion (and other) animals.  “…the overall objective is to provide opportunities for animals to ‘thrive’, not simply ‘survive’” (Mellor, 2016)The Five FreedomsAnimal welfare is traditionally defined by the Five Freedoms. These areFreedom from hunger and thirstFreedom from discomfortFreedom from pain, injury and diseaseFreedom to express normal behaviourFreedom from fear and distres........ Read more »

  • January 9, 2017
  • 08:02 AM
  • 594 views

 Tattoo you—On attraction, impulsivity, pathology, and trustworthiness

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

Here’s an update on the stash of tattoo posts we have here. This is a collection of new research on tattoos (to make sure we are up to date) that will undoubtedly help you decide what your individual ink means/will mean, and of course, what it suggests about your jurors, your clients, your kids, and […]... Read more »

Galbarczyk, A., & Ziomkiewicz, A. (2017) Tattooed men: Healthy bad boys and good-looking competitors. Personality and Individual Differences, 122-125. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.051  

Swami, V., Tran, U., Kuhlmann, T., Stieger, S., Gaughan, H., & Voracek, M. (2016) More similar than different: Tattooed adults are only slightly more impulsive and willing to take risks than Non-tattooed adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 40-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.054  

Thompson, K. (2015) Comparing the psychosocial health of tattooed and non-tattooed women. Personality and Individual Differences, 122-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.010  

Timming, A., & Perrett, D. (2016) Trust and mixed signals: A study of religion, tattoos and cognitive dissonance. Personality and Individual Differences, 234-238. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.067  

  • December 19, 2016
  • 09:43 AM
  • 765 views

I am morally superior to others and also less biased than  everyone….

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

While you may think you have heard this line recently, this is really (based on new research) what most of us think about ourselves. It is called the “better than average effect” and it is very persistent. We might smirk at politicians who actually say things like this aloud, but that’s only because we tend […]... Read more »

Tappin, B., & McKay, R. (2016) The Illusion of Moral Superiority. Social Psychological and Personality Science. DOI: 10.1177/1948550616673878  

Howell JL, & Ratliff KA. (2016) Not your average bigot: The better-than-average effect and defensive responding to Implicit Association Test feedback. The British Journal of Social Psychology. PMID: 27709628  

  • November 30, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 643 views

Playtime After Training Improves a Dog's Memory

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Making time for play immediately after a dog training session improves the dog’s memory.New research by Nadja Affenzeller (University of Lincoln) et al investigates whether play following learning leads to better performance the next day. The scientists wanted to know whether this effect, previously found in humans, would also apply to dogs.In people, it is thought that the hormonal response during positive arousal acts on parts of the brain called the hippocampus and amygdala and leads to........ Read more »

  • November 23, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 668 views

Pets May Help Children Learn About Animal Welfare

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Children’s beliefs about animal welfare and sentience are linked to their own experiences with animals.Surprisingly little is known about children’s beliefs and knowledge about animals. Yet this information could help to improve humane education programs for children. Two recent studies begin to fill this gap, with recommendations for how humane education is taught.We know from previous research that even very young children like animals, and that children with pets are more likely to attrib........ Read more »

Muldoon, J., Williams, J., & Lawrence, A. (2016) Exploring Children’s Perspectives on the Welfare Needs of Pet Animals. Anthrozo?s, 29(3), 357-375. DOI: 10.1080/08927936.2016.1181359  

  • November 9, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 607 views

Vertical Space is Good Enrichment for Cats

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Cats make good use of added vertical space, study shows.A study by Emma Desforges (Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition) et al finds that adding a vertical screen is good enrichment for cats. And while the study used cats that live at the Waltham research centre, the results suggest pet cats could benefit too.The scientists took an Ikea bookcase called Kallax in which the shelves are subdivided. They put half the backing on one side and half on the other, so that some shelves faced one way and the r........ Read more »

  • November 2, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 624 views

Testing an Automated and Humane Way to Resolve Barking

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Teaching a quiet behaviour using an automatic feeder is a promising solution to barking problems.Some dogs bark when their owner is out and they are left home alone. A recent study by Alexandra Protopopova  (Texas Tech University) et al investigates the effectiveness of a humane, automated approach to solving barking problems.The research was conducted because some owners use citronella or shock collars to try and prevent their dogs from barking. While the devices may sometimes work, there ........ Read more »

Protopopova, A., Kisten, D., & Wynne, C. (2016) Evaluating a humane alternative to the bark collar: Automated differential reinforcement of not barking in a home-alone setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. DOI: 10.1002/jaba.334  

  • October 26, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 642 views

Study Shows Just How Stressed Dogs Are at the Vet's

by 무료 슬롯머신 게임 2019CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Most dogs show signs of impaired welfare at the vet, according to their owners.A survey of 906 dog guardians in Italy found most people report their dog as being stressed at all stages of the visit to a vet clinic, from being in the waiting room to being examined by the vet. 6.4% of dogs had actually bitten their guardian at the vet and 11.2% had growled or snapped at the vet.The report by Chiara Mariti (University of Pisa) et al draws important conclusions about what owners and vets need to do ........ Read more »

Mariti C, Pierantoni L, Sighieri C, & Gazzano A. (2016) Guardians' Perceptions of Dogs' Welfare and Behaviors Related to Visiting the Veterinary Clinic. Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS, 1-10. PMID: 27712096  

  • October 16, 2016
  • 09:58 PM
  • 761 views

Call me: female zebra finches prefer their mate’s call

by Emily Makowski in Sextraordinary!

Social interactions are highly sought-after and rewarding in many animals... Even when social interactions involve only one of our senses, they are still rewarding. For example, we like looking at photos of our friends on Facebook, or hearing the voice of a faraway relative via telephone. It’s the same with other animals; not only is socialization rewarding and can be used as an incentive for learning, but just the sights, sounds, and even smells of others are also rewarding. Hernandez et ........ Read more »

Hernandez AM, Perez EC, Mulard H, Mathevon N, & Vignal C. (2016) Mate call as reward: Acoustic communication signals can acquire positive reinforcing values during adulthood in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983), 130(1), 36-43. PMID: 26881942  

  • October 12, 2016
  • 09:30 AM
  • 668 views

Training is Purrfect Enrichment for Frustrated Shelter Cats

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

A new study finds that training shelter cats leads to more contentment and better health.The study, by Nadine Gourkow and Clive Phillips (University of Queensland), tested the effects of training sessions on cats that were frustrated when they arrived at an animal shelter. The cats in the training group became more content and were healthier compared to the cats who just experienced normal shelter conditions.Prof. Clive Phillips says,“Confining a cat into a small cage after it has been roaming........ Read more »

  • September 19, 2016
  • 04:30 PM
  • 714 views

Harnesses are a Great Choice to Walk Your Dog

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

A new study compares a harness to a neck collar and finds both are good for canine welfare.Milo. Photo: Sabrina MignaccaHarnesses are often said to be better for your dog than walking on a collar, but no one had investigated it. Now, a team of scientists at Hartpury College (Grainger, Wills & Montrose 2016) has published a study of the effects of walking a dog on a harness and on a neck collar.The same dogs were walked on a neck collar and on a harness on separate occasions, and their behavi........ Read more »

Grainger, J., Wills, A., & Montrose, V. (2016) The behavioral effects of walking on a collar and harness in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 60-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.06.002  

  • September 7, 2016
  • 11:30 AM
  • 787 views

Clicker Training vs Treat: Equally Good in Dog Training

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

Scientists find unanticipated results in a study that compares the clicker to a verbal reward-marker and the use of food alone in dog training.The study, by Cinzia Chiandetti (University of Trieste) et al  took 51 pet dogs and trained them on a novel task. 17 dogs were trained using a clicker, 17 using a verbal reward marker (“Bravo”), and 17 with only a reward. Then they tested the dogs to see how well they performed when asked to generalize the training to something similar and someth........ Read more »

Chiandetti, C., Avella, S., Fongaro, E., & Cerri, F. (2016) Can clicker training facilitate conditioning in dogs?. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. DOI: http://dx.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2016.08.006  

  • August 31, 2016
  • 12:30 PM
  • 661 views

Brain Scans Show Your Dog Loves You And Food

by CAPB in Companion Animal Psychology Blog

An fMRI study shows different dogs have different preferences for food and social interaction.A recent fMRI study investigates individual differences in dogs’ preferences for food and social interaction with their owner. The results have been widely – and erroneously – reported as showing that dogs prefer praise to food. In fact, the results paint a far more interesting picture of how brain activity predicts canine choice.I think most people feel subjectively that their dog loves them. The........ Read more »

Cook PF, Prichard A, Spivak M, & Berns GS. (2016) Awake Canine fMRI Predicts Dogs' Preference for Praise Versus Food. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. PMID: 27521302  

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