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All posts; Tags Include "Developmental Neuroscience"

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  • May 26, 2017
  • 12:42 PM
  • 1,638 views

Adolescent Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Functional magnetic resonance imaging yields improvement in our understanding of brain development.A recent study out of the University of Pennsylvania is a good example. This study examined the relationship between brain connectivity and the development of cognitive executive function.The researchers imaged a group of 882 subjects between the ages of 8 and 22.Brain connectivity patterns were compared with a neurocognitive assessment of executive function. Executive function increases with age t........ Read more »

Graham L. Baum, Rastko Ciric, David R. Roalf, Richard F. Betzel, Tyler M. Moore, Russel T. Shinohara, Ari E. Kahn, Megan Quarmley, Philip A. Cook, Mark A. Elliot.... (2016) Modular Segregation of Structural Brain Networks Supports the Development of Executive Function in Youth. Current Biology. arXiv: 1608.03619v1

  • May 17, 2017
  • 12:24 PM
  • 569 views

Dad's Impact in Infant Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Mother's interaction with their infants play a key role in infant development.The independent role of fathers in infant development is less well known and studied.A recent study from the United Kingdom supports a important role for father-child interactions in infant development.Here are the main elements of the design of this study:Subjects: Families of infants with typical deliveries were recruited from maternity wards in two hospitals in the United Kingdom.Design: Home assessments were comple........ Read more »

Sethna V, Perry E, Domoney J, Iles J, Psychogiou L, Rowbotham NEL, Stein A, Murray L, & Ramchandani PG. (2017) FATHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS AT 3 MONTHS AND 24 MONTHS: CONTRIBUTIONS TO CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AT 24 MONTHS. Infant mental health journal. PMID: 28449355  

  • February 28, 2017
  • 11:43 AM
  • 596 views

Outcome in Early Education Interventions (Educare)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Despite centuries of experience in education, the best time to start formal education is still under debate. Is five years of age too old? Is three years of age too early?One issue with early education interventions is the potential for catch-up in children starting school later. In other words, early gains with younger children may evaporate overtime.One recent research study examines effectiveness of a child development intervention known as Educare. Educare seeks to reduce the achievement gap........ Read more »

Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Hans, S., Horm, D., St. Clair, L., File, N., & Burchinal, M. (2017) Child and Parenting Outcomes After 1?Year of Educare. Child Development. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12688  

  • November 21, 2016
  • 12:10 PM
  • 819 views

Benefits of Physical Activity in Parkison's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder estimated to affect 7 to 10 million individual worldwide.The primary mechanism for Parkinson's disease is a reduction in the neurotransmitter dopamine in the midbrain region of the substantia nigra highlighted in red in the figure.PD impairs motor and cognitive functions and leads to significant decline in psychosocial functioning.Drugs for PD can be effective in reversing and slowing the progression of the illness. However, resp........ Read more »

Lauzé M, Daneault JF, & Duval C. (2016) The Effects of Physical Activity in?Parkinson's Disease: A Review. Journal of Parkinson's disease, 6(4), 685-698. PMID: 27567884  

  • August 18, 2016
  • 09:54 AM
  • 1,038 views

Wait, let me google it. On the fall (and rise?) of human memory.

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

Ruins of a memory palace Once upon a time, there were no computers. And yet, even in the ancient days when writing was not widespread, people told gigantic tales or recited poems of epic proportions. Often more than once. Admittedly, they probably changed a bit along the way, but still the plot remained intact. How […]... Read more »

Carvalho JT, & Nolfi S. (2016) Cognitive Offloading Does Not Prevent but Rather Promotes Cognitive Development. PloS one, 11(8). PMID: 27505162  

Risko, E., & Gilbert, S. (2016) Cognitive Offloading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 20(9), 676-688. DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2016.07.002  

  • July 7, 2016
  • 10:09 AM
  • 1,156 views

Are animals (and AI’s) people too?

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

Charles gets up and balances on his short legs. During the brief ungainly walk to the dais, he fights the urge to scratch his arms. The vest that has been tailor-made for him itches. But it will help focus the committee on his purpose, focus on him as a person. He squats on the low […]... Read more »

Perring C. (1997) Degrees of personhood. The Journal of medicine and philosophy, 22(2), 173-97. PMID: 9186928  

Windrem MS, Schanz SJ, Morrow C, Munir J, Chandler-Militello D, Wang S, & Goldman SA. (2014) A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(48), 16153-61. PMID: 25429155  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 10:59 AM
  • 1,045 views

An open letter to all science lovers who want to defend science ... please don't.

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Last week I had an animated discussion on Facebook over an older post in which I describe some literature I dug out on possible (underline “possible”!) correlations with autism. True, my post is highly incomplete, but it was meant as a discussion starter to point at things that scientists have been looking at in an attempt to unravel what feels like a rise in autism. Is autism the new childhood plague of our modern society or has it always been around and we just became more aware of it? And........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Bjorkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3047-3052. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108  

Mulle, J., Sharp, W., & Cubells, J. (2013) The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0  

  • March 7, 2016
  • 12:51 AM
  • 1,080 views

From evolutionary morphology to Godzilla

by adam phillips in It Ain't Magic

I recently spoke with Chief Scientist Shigeru Kuratani about evolutionary morphology, sci-fi monsters, the genius of Alien, and more.... Read more »

Sugahara, F., Pascual-Anaya, J., Oisi, Y., Kuraku, S., Aota, S., Adachi, N., Takagi, W., Hirai, T., Sato, N., Murakami, Y.... (2016) Evidence from cyclostomes for complex regionalization of the ancestral vertebrate brain. Nature, 531(7592), 97-100. DOI: 10.1038/nature16518  

  • January 20, 2016
  • 07:55 AM
  • 1,191 views

Pump Up Your Brain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Exercising makes you smarter! Preadolescents who begin exercising score better on a cognitive assessment not unlike an IQ test. They also perform better on a math test, even though no additional math instruction was given. But to maximize the increase in neural plasticity, you have to exercise several times a week for months. The weirdest part – different types of exercise alter different neurotrophins, so to be your smartest, you need to do aerobic training and resistance training. ... Read more »

Patten AR, Sickmann H, Hryciw BN, Kucharsky T, Parton R, Kernick A, & Christie BR. (2013) Long-term exercise is needed to enhance synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Learning , 20(11), 642-7. PMID: 24131795  

Cassilhas RC, Lee KS, Fernandes J, Oliveira MG, Tufik S, Meeusen R, & de Mello MT. (2012) Spatial memory is improved by aerobic and resistance exercise through divergent molecular mechanisms. Neuroscience, 309-17. PMID: 22155655  

Davis CL, Tomporowski PD, McDowell JE, Austin BP, Miller PH, Yanasak NE, Allison JD, & Naglieri JA. (2011) Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: a randomized, controlled trial. Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 30(1), 91-8. PMID: 21299297  

  • November 4, 2015
  • 02:50 PM
  • 1,015 views

Brain Imaging in Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Brain image highlighting right insula implicated in DLBRecent information has emerged concerning the suicide death of the comedian/actor Robin Williams.Autopsy results have demonstrated that Robin Williams suffered from dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).This public case demonstrates the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis of DLB prior to the findings at autopsy.In a previous post I reported on a screening tool for clinicians that appears to have some promise for screening for high-risk DLB pa........ Read more »

Blanc F, Colloby SJ, Philippi N, de Pétigny X, Jung B, Demuynck C, Phillipps C, Anthony P, Thomas A, Bing F.... (2015) Cortical Thickness in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Prodromal and Dementia Stages. PloS one, 10(6). PMID: 26061655  

  • October 30, 2015
  • 12:06 PM
  • 1,220 views

Wii Fit Games for Children with Coordination Problems

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Among the types of development problems of childhood is developmental coordination disorder or DCD.In DCD, children show delay and subnormal performance in coordinated motor skills.This may be noted as a general tendency of clumsiness with difficulties in activities such as catching a ball, using scissors, handwriting or riding a bike.Computer games such as the Nintendo Wii platform provide a method to improve a variety of motor and coordination skills in a fun environment.A South African team r........ Read more »

Smits-Engelsman BC, Jelsma LD, Ferguson GD, & Geuze RH. (2015) Motor Learning: An Analysis of 100 Trials of a Ski Slalom Game in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder. PloS one, 10(10). PMID: 26466324  

  • August 31, 2015
  • 05:31 AM
  • 1,083 views

Cats on Treadmills (and the plasticity of biological motion perception)

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Cats on a treadmill. From Treadmill Kittens.It's been an eventful week. The 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. The 10th Anniversary of Optogenetics (with commentary from the neuroscience community and from the inventors). The Reproducibility Project's efforts to replicate 100 studies in cognitive and social psychology (published in Science). And the passing of the great writer and neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, and Wes Craven just died too...I'm not blogging about any of these events. Many ........ 무료 슬롯머신 게임 2019Read more »

Bottari, D., Troje, N., Ley, P., Hense, M., Kekunnaya, R., & R?der, B. (2015) The neural development of the biological motion processing system does not rely on early visual input. Cortex, 359-367. DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.029  

  • August 25, 2015
  • 04:13 PM
  • 1,155 views

Microbes and the mind: Who's pulling the strings?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

There are many examples throughout nature of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and parasites influencing the neurobiology and behavior of their hosts. For example, the rabies virus enters the nervous system almost immediately after a bite or scratch and travels to the brain, where it influences neural activity to make aggressive behavior more likely. This, of course, is beneficial for the virus as it increases the probability its infected host will make contact with another susceptible host........ Read more »

Cryan, J., & Dinan, T. (2012) Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(10), 701-712. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3346  

  • July 8, 2015
  • 01:54 PM
  • 935 views

Brain Imaging and Alzheimer's Disease Prediction

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Enhanced early detection of risk for Alzheimer's dementia and other forms of dementia is key to prevention and early intervention.Brain imaging holds promise as a pre-clinical disease risk assessment tool in Alzeimer's dementia.Dementia risk has been linked to several brain imaging abnormalities found with magnetic resonance imaging. These abnormalities have included atrophy of the brain hippocampus, medial temporal lobe as well as white matter hyperintensities.A recent study from France examine........ Read more »

Stephan BC, Tzourio C, Auriacombe S, Amieva H, Dufouil C, Alpérovitch A, & Kurth T. (2015) Usefulness of data from magnetic resonance imaging to improve prediction of dementia: population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 26099688  

  • May 14, 2015
  • 11:31 AM
  • 902 views

Male Depression Risk Via Childhood Conduct Disorder

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder represents an important childhood-onset condition that commonly persists into adulthood.Adult antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse are known risks associated with conduct disorder.A recent study by Kenneth Kendler and Charles Gardner identified male conduct disorder as a risk factor for adult major depression.Their study using the Virginia Twin Registry examined 20 developmental risk factors in male and female twins for presence of recent adult major depression.A ........ Read more »

Kendler, K., & Gardner, C. (2014) Sex Differences in the Pathways to Major Depression: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171(4), 426-435. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13101375  

  • April 13, 2015
  • 11:22 AM
  • 889 views

Treating Insomnia in Children with ADHD

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia commonly complicates the clinical presentation and treatment in children with ADHD.Stimulant therapy may provide significant relief for daytime attention and hyperactivity symptoms. However, stimulants do not appear to help with comorbid insomnia. In fact, stimulant therapy may cause more problems with insomnia in ADHD.Behavioral treatments are known to be effective in children without ADHD. Now we have a recently published study showing the effectiveness of behavioral treatment of inso........ Read more »

Hiscock H, Sciberras E, Mensah F, Gerner B, Efron D, Khano S, & Oberklaid F. (2015) Impact of a behavioural sleep intervention on symptoms and sleep in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and parental mental health: randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 25646809  

  • April 7, 2015
  • 12:57 PM
  • 1,020 views

ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Structural brain imaging studies in ADHD fail to find consistent differences from non-ADHD populations.However, there is increasing evidence linking ADHD to changes in brain white matter function.An example of these findings is a recent study from China examining white matter in children with ADHD.ADHD is typically subgrouped into inattention (ADHD-I), hyperactivity ADHD-H or combined categories (ADHD-C). In the recent Chinese study, inattention and combined subgroups of children were compa........ Read more »

  • March 30, 2015
  • 12:25 PM
  • 990 views

One Parent,Two Parents and Child Well-Being

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The structure of the family in the United States and other countries is changing. This change has occurred over a relatively brief period of time. Data noted in the study I am reviewing today shows that between 1970 and 2013 in the U.S.:Percentage of children living with two parents dropped 24%Percentage of children living with a single mother increased to 23.7%Percentage of children living with a single father quadrupled to 4.1%Percentage of children living with a grandparent doubled to 6......... Read more »

Krueger PM, Jutte DP, Franzini L, Elo I, & Hayward MD. (2015) Family structure and multiple domains of child well-being in the United States: a cross-sectional study. Population health metrics, 6. PMID: 25729332  

  • March 26, 2015
  • 12:17 PM
  • 877 views

Parenting Moderates Childhood Brain Stress Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Child brain development benefits from a positive parenting style and environment.The mechanism for this positive effect is unclear but moderation of the stress response in the growing child is an area of research interest.Haroon Sheikh and colleagues from the University of Ontario in Canada recently published results on a study of parenting and brain development in children.In their study, a cohort of 46 six year old girls underwent brain imaging using a technique known as diffusion tensor imagi........ Read more »

Sheikh HI, Joanisse MF, Mackrell SM, Kryski KR, Smith HJ, Singh SM, & Hayden EP. (2014) Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting. NeuroImage. Clinical, 77-85. PMID: 25379418  

  • March 25, 2015
  • 11:37 AM
  • 864 views

Parental Education As Risk Factor For Eating Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the risk for anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders.Known risk factors for anorexia nervosa include female gender, young age, family member with anorexia nervosa, weight loss, and participation in weight sensitive sports or activities, i.e. gymnastics, dancing.There has also been evidence that anorexia nervosa is more common in higher socioeconomic classes. This finding has made it one of the few brain disorders more common with this cate........ Read more »

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